line

• Raag Megh •

S-R-m-P-n-S Among the oldest surviving members of the Malhar family, Megh (‘cloud’) is said to have saved the life of Tansen himself. Legend holds that great composer’s forceful rendition of Deepak caused the waters and streams around him to boil, and all the oil lamps to burn uncontrollably in Emperor Akbar’s royal palace. His efforts to […]

 

line

• Raag Malkauns •

S-g-m-d-n-S Among the most revered ragas in the Hindustani pantheon, Malkauns (‘he who wears serpents as garlands’) combines structural simplicity with a nuanced mythological ethos. Said to have been composed by the goddess Parvati to soothe Shiva’s murderous rage, it is associated with states of ‘severe tranquility’, calling on artists to approach with solemnity and […]

 

line

• Raag Kalavati •

S-G-P-D-n-S A playful pentatonic form, neatly structured as a stack of ‘regularly narrowing’ intervals (4>3>2>1 semitones). The wide, triadic poorvang and clustered uttarang combine to give a reassuring momentum, with increasing melodic urgency as you go higher (a ‘triple jump followed by a sprint’). Consequently, performances of the raga tend towards energy and rhythmic charge. […]

 

line

• Raag Jog •

S-gG-m-P-n-S A lively late-evening raga, Jog translates as ‘state of union’ (derived from the Sanskrit concept of yogi). Its oddly bluesy harmony presents an enchanting almost-familiarity to uninitiated listeners, mixing major and minor flavours via a characteristic ‘Gmg zigzag’ phrase in descent (which, via the wonders of convergent evolution, suggests the structure of a 7#9 […]

 

line

• Raag Durga •

S-R-m-P-D-S Beguiling in its pentatonic simplicity, Durga (‘invincible, impassable’) is inextricably tied to visions of the Mother Goddess: depicted in Hindu lore as a destroyer of demons and protector of the faithful. Despite these ancient associations, the raga is of relatively recent Carnatic import, only gaining broad acceptance among Northern rasikas around the mid-20th century. […]

 

line

• Raag Bhupali •

S-R-G-P-D-S Hailed for its structural simplicity, Bhupali is often the first raga taught to Hindustani students. While the same Major Pentatonic scale form is shared by countless global cultures, India’s incarnation (named for Madhya Pradesh’s Bhopal region) presents its own quirks – invoking tranquillity and home-bound reassurance with interlinked sliding motions and emphatic resolutions. Shares […]

 

line

• Raag (Brindabani) Sarang •

S-R-m-P-nN-S Sarang ragas, often linked with 16th-century mystic-musician Swami Haridas, are also said to have been used in snake-charming rituals of the past. Brindabani Sarang, named for Uttar Pradesh’s Vrindavan region, is believed to have brought an incarnation of Krishna to earth when Haridas sung it for the first time. The raga is associated with […]

 

line

• Raag Pahadi •

S-R-G-P-D-S Said to derive from Bengali or Kashmiri folk tunes, Pahadi (meaning ‘mountain’ or ‘of the hills’) combines the playful with the pensive. While its Bhupali-congruent core form offers a certain sparse simplicity, the raga’s true magic is found in its extensive mishra capabilities – with the tasteful use of virtually any swara being permitted, […]

 

line

• Raag Mohankauns •

S-gG-m-d-n-S As recounted in The Hindu, Mohankauns “was spontaneously created by Ravi Shankar in 1949. On hearing of [Mohandas K.] Gandhi’s death, Pandit-ji was asked by AIR to play a piece dedicated to the Mahatma. On the spot, he created a variation of…Malkauns”. The new raga adds a shuddha Ga in aroha, bringing special prominence […]

 

line

• Raag Hemshri •

S-g-m-P-nN-S A night raga created by Gwalior composer and vocalist Vishwanath Rao Ringe ‘Tanarang’, essentially equivalent to ‘Tilang komal ga’. In his own words: “the mood [is] light…a very sweet melody that manifests readily in the following combinations [e.g. SgmPm, gmPnPNNS; PNSnP; PNSgNS]”. Re (already rare in Tilang) is banned entirely, while the raga is distinguished […]

 

line

• Raag Hansadhwani •

S-R-G-P-N-S Hansadhwani translates to ‘call of swans’ – a creature with rich cultural associations in the Subcontinent (Saraswati, goddess of music and learning, is often depicted atop a swan, said to symbolise purity, discernment, and the process of breathing). Originally an import from Carnatic music, the raga’s pentatonic simplicity invites the listener towards the calm […]

 

line

• Raag Bairagi Todi •

S-r-g-P-n-S Created by Ravi Shankar, Bairagi Todi replaces Bairagi’s ma with a Todi-intoned ati-komal ga, retaining a concise audav structure while presenting an odd mix of narrow and wide intervals. Often set to unusual talas (e.g. Shankar’s original is in Sade-Gyarah taal, an 11.5-matra cycle), the raga is explorable in all octaves, with most artists favouring […]

 

line

• Raag Devshri •

S-R-M-P-n-S An intriguing-but-uncommon audav raga resembling ‘Megh tivra Ma’ (or ‘Vachaspati no Ga/Dha’). Its unique swara set is distinguished by a disbalance in how Sa and Pa are ‘enclosed’ by the swaras above and below (nSR: ‘2-2’, MPn: ‘1-3’) – offering curious contrast with the symmetrical order of the RMn ‘equilateral triangle’ (a ‘4-4-4’ augmented triad). Described […]

 

line

• Raag Chandrakauns •

S-g-m-d-N-S Chandrakauns is a spacious raga of relatively modern origin, only becoming distinct from divergent strains of ‘shuddha Ni Malkauns’ by around the mid-20th century. This ni-for-Ni replacement removes much of Malkauns’ symmetry and intervallic balance, with the chromatic leading-tone resolution (N>S) bringing more prominence to the role of both swaras. Due to these sharper […]

 

line

• Raag Bhupali Todi •

S-r-g-P-d-S A captivating audav raga said to symbolise spiritual purity, which essentially runs along the lines of ‘what if all Bhupali‘s chal swaras were set as komal rather than shuddha?’ (SRGPDS > SrgPdS). Most renditions are poorvang-dominant, drawing from the Todi-ang as well as reshaping phrases from Bhupali, Bilaskhani Todi, and other allied forms (given the […]

 

line

• Raag Zeelaf •

S-G-m-P-d-S A rare audav raga fabled to have been created by 13th-century qawwali pioneer Amir Khusrau, somewhat resembling ‘Charukeshi minus Re & ni’. As per Rajan Parrikar, “this haunting pentatonic melody is composed of the following swaras: SGmPd: Jitendra Abhisheki gives a superb account with his own composition. Notice the strong ma…[and] the subtle Gm/S meend”. […]

 

line

• Raag Sundarkauns •

S-g-m-D-n-S Taking the shape of ‘Malkauns shuddha Dha’ (or ‘Harikauns shuddha ma’), Sundarkauns’ swara set has, as per Tanarang, been unjustly sidelined by previous generations as a ‘Bageshri-ang Chandrakauns’ (“A misnomer…this raag has [neither] a shuddha Ni indicating Chandrakauns, nor [an] avroh like Bageshri…[so] it couldn’t gain much popularity”). He describes his revival of this intriguing audav […]

 

line

• Raag Shuddha Kalyan •

S-R-G-M-P-D-N-S A popular early night raga, Shuddha Kalyan ascends with the same 5 swaras as Bhupali (SRGPDS), and descends with the full 7 of Yaman (SNDPMGRS), leading some to title it ‘Bhoop-Kalyan’. Phrases tend to end on the poorvang-slanted Sa, Re, Ga, or Pa – and both the ‘avroh-only’ swaras (Ni & Ma) must be treated subtly […]

 

line

• Raag Tulsikauns •

S-g-m-d-nN-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Karthik & Niladri Kumar (1980s)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna […]

 

line

• Raag Tilang •

S-G-m-P-nN-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Shahid Parvez Khan (2020)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: […]

 

line

• Raag Sundarkali •

S-r-G-P-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Vilayat Hussain Khan (1962)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: […]

 

line

• Raag Shuddha Malhar •

S-R-m-P-D-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Lalith J. Rao (1994)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: […]

 

line

• Raag Shobhawari •

S-R-m-P-d-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Aslam Khan (~2000s)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Shivranjani •

S-R-g-P-D-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Shivnath Mishra (2013)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Reva •

S-r-G-P-d-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Joydeep Mukherjee (2021)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Rasaranjani •

S-R-m-D-N-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Sakuntala Narasimhan (~1990s)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Rajeshwari •

S-g-m-D-N-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Adnan Khan (2022)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Noor Sarang •

S-R-mM-P-nN-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Bahauddin Dagar (2020)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Nandkauns •

S-gG-m-d-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Amjad Ali Khan (1970)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: […]

 

line

• Raag Milan Gandhar •

S-gG-P-D-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Nazakat & Salamat Ali Khan (1965)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | […]

 

line

• Raag Meghranjani •

S-r-G-mM-N-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Abhijith Shenoy ‘Abhirang’ (2021)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: […]

 

line

• Raag Madhurkauns •

S-gG-m-d-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Prabha Atre (2014)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Madhuranjani •

S-g-m-P-N-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Sawani Shende (2021)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Madhuradhwani •

S-G-m-D-nN-S As per Parrikar, “Durga Khamaj-thaat…is also known [as] ‘Madhuradhwani’…This is not a popular raga, its base eroded by the popularity of Rageshri…[but] is part of the Dagar family repertoire”. While some renditions may skip Ni in ascent, traditional Dhrupad presentation will render it shuddha in aroha and komal in avroh – along with a strong […]

 

line

• Raag Madhumad Sarang •

S-R-m-P-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Kaivalya Kumar Gurav (2015)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: […]

 

line

• Raag Madhukauns •

S-g-M-P-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Amir Khan (~1960s)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Kaushik Dhwani •

S-G-m-D-N-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Rashid Khan (2012)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Jogeshwari •

S-gG-m-D-n-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Ravi Shankar (1980)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Jaldhar Kedar •

S-R-m-P-D-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —K.G. Ginde (1985)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]

 

line

• Raag Jait Kalyan •

S-R-G-P-D-S [summary] • Home | Megalist | Tags • —Mallikarjun Mansur (1968)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna Poorvang: SRGM […]