• Raag Roopkali •


A variation of Ramkali, which is distinguished through a general avoidance of komal ni and sporadic inclusion of shuddha Re. Renditions generally focus on the mid-scale region, with all five specific swaras from shuddha Ga to komal dha available for use (GmMPd). Khadim Hussain Khan’s twisting melodies tend to pair tivra Ma with Pa above, and shuddha ma with Re below (e.g. PMP; mRm), also co-opting Bhairav’s G\rS descent phrase in a bewitching overall blend. Refer to similar renditions by Yunus Hussain Khan and Aslam Hussain Khan – as well as the only other ‘double-Re, double-Ma‘ ragas I can definitively trace: Madhusurja and Gaurimanjari.

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—Khadim Hussain Khan (1970s)—

[refrain, e.g. 0:01] MP d, PdN dP, mR P, d (P), (PM)P, m(RmRPm) G\rSS, SrGmP, (PM)P, (PM)PP P(d) PM/P d(Nd)N dP P, (R)m\R P, d (P)…


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: (none found)


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SrRGmMPdNS
Reverse: SrGmMPdnNS (=Ramkali)
Negative: 1-5-6
Imperfect: 2 (Re, dha)
Detached: none
Symmetries: none
Murchanas: Basanti Kanada (on Pa)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: (~Basant Bahaar)
Jazz: Double Harmonic (dbl. 2nd/4th)
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o o o • o o o o o • • o o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Roopkali, Rupkali


—Yunus Hussain Khan (~1970s)—



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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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