• Raag Pahadi •


Said to derive from Bengali or Kashmiri folk tunes, Pahadi (meaning ‘mountain’ or ‘of the hills’) combines the playful with the pensive. While its Bhupali-congruent core form offers a certain sparse simplicity, the raga’s true magic is found in its extensive mishra capabilities – with the tasteful use of virtually any swara being permitted, particularly in long avroh lines which often borrow liberally from nearby forms. Popular in filmi and fusion.

Raga Megalist (365+) •
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Hindustani Raga Index •


Aroha: SRG, PDS
Avroh: SDP, GRS

Chalan: variable – mishra path e.g. SD; DNPD; GPDS; DSRG; RGmG; RSND; PmG; PDSR; GmGgG; GPDS; DPGgGS (Ramrang)


—Shivkumar Sharma (2019)—

[mishra dhun, e.g. 3:25] SRGP, P, P(DPMGRSRG), S(RGMP) D(PMPGRG) G(MPMDPMG)G; (D)GD, D, D(NDPMG) P, P(MG)RS(D), SRG, GRS, DNS(RGMPMGR), G G, GRS, DgRS, S…


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: Bhupali, Deshkar, Jait Kalyan


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SRGPDS
Reverse: SgmdnS (=Malkauns)
Negative: 2-2-2-1-2-2-1 (e.g. Yaman)
Imperfect: 1 (Ga)
Detached: none
Symmetries: mirror (R—d)
Murchanas: Bhupali set

Quirks: ‘atritonal‘ (no available tritones) • maximal‘ (swaras are optimally ‘spread out’)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: ~Mohanam
Jazz: Major Pentatonic
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o • o • o • • o • o • • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa (+Ga)
• Names: Pahadi, Pahari


—Debasmita Bhattacharya (2015)—




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Hindustani Raga Index

An open-ended project seeking to bring North Indian raga closer to all who approach with open ears. Combines direct input from dozens of leading Hindustani artists with in-depth insights from music history, global theory, performance practice, cognitive science, and much more! [out 2023-24]

Megalist (365+ ragas)
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Tags: Classifying the ragascape •
Glossary: Raga jargon demystified
Murchanas: Swara-set rotations •
Thaat: Bhatkhande’s base scales •
Ragatable: Analytical connections •
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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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