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• Raag Yaman •

S-R-G-M-P-D-N-S Among the first-learned and most-performed ragas, Yaman’s influence on modern Hindustani music is impossible to overstate. Linked to the early night hours (‘when lanterns are lit’), the disbalancing effects of tivra Ma – the only non-shuddha swara – allow for a kaleidoscopic emotional range, with Sa and Pa often being skipped in aroha to […]

 

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• Raag Todi •

S-r-g-M-P-d-N-S Pivotal to Hindustani history, the Todi raganga overflows with musical ideas found nowhere else on the planet. Some link its ambiguous geometries with “existential unsettlement”, while others hear “the playfulness of a newborn, content and smiling”. Rajan Parrikar hails it as “the most profound, finespun idea in melodic music…from ecstasy, to frolic, to pathos, […]

 

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• Raag Tilak Kamod •

S-R-G-m-P-D-N-S Mirroring the Western Major scale, Tilak Kamod’s seven swaras offer robust melodic flexibility across a range of sentiments (“heroic courage, philosophic poise, devotional contentment, suggestive eroticism…”). One tale traces the raga to Pyar Khan, a rabab pioneer said to have devised it after overhearing a village woman sing while grinding corn in Uttar Pradesh. […]

 

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• Raag Shree •

S-r-G-M-P-d-N-S According to Gwalior vocal master Omkarnath Thakur, Shree is associated with those sunset hours when “disembodied spirits…become active, and aid in the black magic of Tantriks”. Tied to ancient mythologies of Lord Shiva, the raga takes its name from ‘Sri’, a sacred Sanskrit syllable which in Vedic tradition represents the material nature of humanity’s […]

 

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• Raag Puriya Dhanashree •

S-r-G-M-P-d-N-S Like the scale-congruent Shree, Puriya Dhanashree’s hemitonic clusters outline a major triad (SGP) with the first and last steps ‘enclosed’ by their immediate neighbours to give two sets of three adjacent swaras (NSr, MPd). Pa exerts the strongest gravity, easing the tension of the tivra Ma and providing temporary anchor for melodic lines which […]

 

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• Raag Puriya •

S-r-G-M-D-N-S A prominent sunset raga, Puriya takes the same six swaras as Marwa and Sohini, reworking them to bring a distinct set of melodic forces. Renditions tend to focus on the low and middle octaves, seeking a fine balance between ascending and descending phrases. Some describe its mood as one of ‘sombre piety’, while others […]

 

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• Raag Poorvi •

S-r-G-mM-P-d-N-S Poorvi is a long-lived sunset raga from East India, which to many evokes a serious mood of mystical contemplation. Mixing wide and narrow intervals (all swaras have at least one immediate neighbour), its complex twists and turns belie the base scale’s neat, symmetrical nature – with Sa and Pa often being omitted in ascent […]

 

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• Raag Multani •

S-r-g-M-P-d-N-S Multani is an afternoon raga of angular shape and ancient heritage: the name suggests origins in the Multan region, long heralded as a holy site by Hindus, Sikhs, and Sufis alike. In Deepak Raja’s reflection, its Todi-congruent swaras fit with “oppressive afternoon heat…the virtual wilting of the body and mind under the remorseless tyranny […]

 

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• Raag Miyan ki Malhar •

S-R-g-m-P-D-nN-S Derived from the Sanskrit for ‘banishing uncleanliness’, the main raga of the Malhar family is mythically connected to Miyan Tansen, said to have sung it at Emperor Akbar’s 16th-century royal court to summon the monsoon. Still inextricably linked to the rejuvenating effects of rain, Malhar’s twin ni swaras are essential to generating the charged […]

 

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• Raag Megh •

S-R-m-P-n-S Among the oldest surviving members of the Malhar family, Megh (‘cloud’) is said to have saved the life of Tansen himself. Legend holds that great composer’s forceful rendition of Deepak caused the waters and streams around him to boil, and all the oil lamps to burn uncontrollably in Emperor Akbar’s royal palace. His efforts to […]

 

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• Raag Marwa •

S-r-G-M-D-N-S Notable for omitting its own Sa for long stretches, the hexatonic Marwa conjures moods of ‘austere, spiritual renunciation’ – summoning these sentiments with low, slow lines which patiently outline the raga’s highly irregular geometry (three adjacent plus three wide-set swaras). Its descent-dominant melodies often tease at resolutions which never fully arrive. Congruent with Puriya […]

 

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• Raag Malkauns •

S-g-m-d-n-S Among the most revered ragas in the Hindustani pantheon, Malkauns (‘he who wears serpents as garlands’) combines structural simplicity with a nuanced mythological ethos. Said to have been composed by the goddess Parvati to soothe Shiva’s murderous rage, it is associated with states of ‘severe tranquility’, calling on artists to approach with solemnity and […]

 

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• Raag Lalit •

S-r-G-mM-d-N-S Lalit is an oddly-shaped sunrise raga. Among the most influential forms in Hindustani history, its distinctive ‘double Ma, no Pa’ structure has a malleable ambiguity, capable of conjuring flavours ranging from “sadness and anguish to the serene and devotional”. The evenly-weighted treatment of the twin ma swaras leads some to see the tivra as […]

 

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• Raag Kafi •

S-R-g-m-P-D-n-S Perhaps more like an compendium of folk tunes than a fully codified raga framework, Kafi offers unusual chromatic freedoms. Almost always appearing in mishra (‘mixed’) form, renditions will often borrow from affiliated ragas as well as semi-classical styles such as thumri, dadra, and ghazal. Lyrical material tends towards the romantic, matched by free-roaming melodies. […]

 

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• Raag Gorakh Kalyan •

S-R-m-P-D-n-S A spacious, folksy raga of the late evening, Gorakh Kalyan (named for Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh) has fabled links to Saint Gorakhnath – a yogi and mystic-musician said to have travelled throughout the Subcontinent in search of spiritual wisdom and sonic enrichment. Some include only four swaras in aroha (SRmD), leaving room for winding, […]

 

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• Raag Desh •

S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S Intimately connected to Indian national identity, Desh gives melodic direction to the famous patriotic anthem Vande Mataram, as well as soundtracking dozens of Rabindrasangeet. Associated with the second quarter of night, renditions tend towards the sweet and romantic, borrowing liberally from thumri, hori, and other folk forms. Re is prominent – and the raga […]

 

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• Raag Darbari •

S-R-g-m-P-d-n-S Darbari has been described as “the emperor of ragas, and the raga of emperors”. Its majestic tones famously echoed across the marble floors of Mughal palaces in centuries past, bringing solemn relief to kings, warlords, and diplomats alike. Consequently, renditions tend to retain a grave, reverential patience, laden with heavy, vocalistic ornaments and turns. […]

 

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• Raag Bilaskhani Todi •

S-r-g-m-P-d-n-S A hallowed form, Bilaskhani Todi is fabled to have been created by Bilas Khan: son of Tansen, the legendary composer of Emperor Akbar’s court. On trying to sing Todi at his father’s funeral wake, Bilas found himself so grief-stricken that he mixed up the swaras – however, his panic was allayed on witnessing the […]

 

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• Raag Bihag •

S-R-G-mM-P-D-N-S Created via the artful grafting of tivra Ma onto a Bilawal-oriented base, Bihag contains a wealth of melodic possibilities. Long linked to late evening festivities, its meend-laden tendencies are explored with symmetrical articulations and fluid resolution phrases, guided by nuanced swara hierarchies which may display significant gharana-to-gharana variance. Swara-congruent with multiple ragas, including Chayanat, […]

 

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• Raag Bhupali •

S-R-G-P-D-S Hailed for its structural simplicity, Bhupali is often the first raga taught to Hindustani students. While the same Major Pentatonic scale form is shared by countless global cultures, India’s incarnation (named for Madhya Pradesh’s Bhopal region) presents its own quirks – invoking tranquillity and home-bound reassurance with interlinked sliding motions and emphatic resolutions. Shares […]

 

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• Raag Bhimpalasi •

S-R-g-m-P-D-n-S Associated with the invigorating warmth of the late afternoon sun, Bhimpalasi evokes multiple shades of shringara (‘romantic love, erotic desire’). Thought to have arisen from an archaic union between Bheem and Palas, the raga calls for direct, passionate melodic outpourings, balancing a deft pentatonic ascent with the symmetry-inducing addition of Re and Dha going […]

 

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• Raag Bhairavi •

S-r-g-m-P-d-n-S Probably the most prominent raga in the entire Hindustani canon, Bhairavi (‘awe, terror’: after the Fifth Avatar of the Mother Goddess) is a concert-closing staple. Unique in its chromatic flexibilities, the raga may span the full swara spectrum, allowing for a multitude of moods in the hands of a master. Long linked to the […]

 

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• Raag Bhairav •

S-r-G-m-P-d-N-S Revered as the primary raga of Lord Shiva, Bhairav takes its name from Kala Bhairava (‘fearsome form’) – an apocalyptic manifestation of the deity fabled to have cut off one of Brahma’s five heads to silence his arrogance. Renditions reflect the gravity of this ancient lore, depicting Shiva’s tandav (‘dance of destruction’) with wide-roving […]

 

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• Raag Bageshri •

S-R-g-m-P-D-n-S An ancient raga of the late night, Bageshri is associated with vipralambha – the profound shades of longing felt by a separated lover. These sentiments are reflected in its multipolar phraseology: artists may resolve towards Sa for a clustered, inward-turning feel, or towards shuddha ma for a more open, expansive sound – often seen […]

 

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• Raag Asavari •

S-rR-g-m-P-d-n-S An antique late morning raga, Asavari comprises two main variants: an older, Dhrupad-favoured ‘komal re’ form, and a more recent set of ‘shuddha Re’ offshoots. Both call for complex connective motions and expressive oscillations on dha, which may be tuned ati-komal. Classical ragmala paintings often depict Asavari as a female snake-charmer sitting atop a […]

 

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• Raag Ahir Bhairav •

S-r-G-m-P-D-n-S Inextricably linked with the Indian sunrise, Ahir Bhairav draws on ideas from both the North and South of the Subcontinent. Possibly named for the Ahir cattle-herding caste, the raga is fabled to mimic the ringing of cowbells at dawn – with patient ascent patterns often settling into extended oscillations on the komal re (seen […]

 

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• Raag Shankara •

S-R-G-P-D-N-S Long fabled as a favourite of Lord Shiva, Shankara takes its name from an epithet of the deity (Rajan Parrikar: “the musical embodiment of [Shiva’s] personality, comporting with all its attributes: raudra, veera, irascible, volatile, capricious…”). A pre-midnight raga, it ascends with SGPDNS, often in vakra patterns, before adding subtle touches of shuddha Re […]

 

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• Raag Shahana •

S-R-g-m-P-D-n-S A late night raga, Shahana (literally: ‘of royal demeanour’) is a close cousin of the more famous Bageshri, sharing the same swaras but focusing more on the use of shuddha Dha as a melodic endpoint. Usually classed as a member of the Kanada family, Deepak Raja notes that Shahana is linked in medieval texts […]

 

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• Raag (Brindabani) Sarang •

S-R-m-P-nN-S The Sarang raga lineage, often linked to 16th-century mystic-musician Swami Haridas, is also associated with snake-charming rituals of the past. Brindabani Sarang, named for Uttar Pradesh’s Vrindavan region, is the principal raga of this group – and is believed to have brought an incarnation of Krishna to earth when Haridas sung it for the […]

 

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• Raag Ramkali •

S-r-G-mM-P-d-nN-S Resembling ‘Bhairav with touches of tivra ma and komal ni in avroh’, Ramkali is an early morning raga, often associated with Sikh saintly traditions (“the emotions in Ramkali are like those of a wise teacher disciplining their student, who is aware of the pain of learning…”). Though generally similar to Bhairav, Ramkali focuses more on […]

 

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• Raag Purba •

S-r-G-mM-P-dD-N-S A rare raga of the Jaipur-Atrauli gharana, described by Rajan Parrikar as “essentially Raag Poorvi adorned with bells and whistles” (namely, the Ma-mixing catchphrases Sm, mGP and M, MP Pd, dNdP). Mewati innovator Pandit Jasraj also recorded his own captivating rendition, seasoned by the liberal inclusion of shuddha Dha. Also hear Vilayat Khan on surbahar. […]

 

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• Raag Malashree •

S-G-P-S Often said to comprise only three swaras (a SGP Major triad), Malashree pushes the bounds of raga definition. Arguably, this challenge is its defining purpose, calling on performers to find expressive freedom within an ultra-limited framework. In practice, this often leads artists to push the raga’s own bounds instead, via including tivra Ma and shuddha Ni […]

 

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• Raag Kedar •

S-R-mM-P-D-N-S An early night raga, Kedar is associated with heat (Tanarang: “there is much thermal energy in this melody…hence it is regarded as the ragini of Deepak“: Tansen’s legendary fire-bringing raga). Often seen as particularly subtle, complex, and hard-to-perform – partly due to its curiously wide aroha jump from Sa to Ma (depending on variant, […]

 

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• Raag Jaunpuri •

S-R-g-m-P-d-n-S Jaunpuri is a late morning raga, likely originating in the Sultanate-era music of Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh. Rajan Parrikar describes it as an “Asavariant”, closely tied to the phraseologies of the Asavari family: some see the ragas as indistinguishable, while others consider Jaunpuri to take more ‘rounded’ melodic shapes, and permit greater use of […]

 

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• Raag Gujiri Todi •

S-r-g-M-d-N-S A popular Todi variant named for its association with Gujarat, India’s Westernmost state. Linked to the morning hours, it takes a similar swara set to the main Todi, distinguishing itself by omitting Pa throughout. Dagarvani beenkar Bahauddin Dagar chooses to intone the raga’s Sa with a slightly higher sruti than that of the tanpura, adjusted […]

 

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• Raag Arun Malhar •

S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S An ancient Malhar variant, marked out by a DDnPDGPm pakad. As per Rajan Parrikar, “although it finds a mention in [Bhatkhande], no details are forthcoming. There are a couple of other works where the raga is treated, but again only in the sketchiest of terms”. Described as a mix of Bilawal, Gaud Malhar, and […]

 

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• Raag Adi Basant •

S-rR-G-m-P-D-N-S An alternate form of the far more prevalent Basant (‘Springtime’), named for its intimate connection to the ceremonies of that season. Many see Adi Basant as the latter’s ancestor, highlighting its historic prevalence in Dhrupad and Haveli Sangeet. Usually played before dawn, Adi Basant remains rare outside of the Dagarvani lineages and associated Dhrupad zones. […]

 

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• Raag Adana •

S-R-g-m-P-d-n-S Though congruent with the swaras of Darbari, Adana favours a “lighter, flittering” treatment: skipping ga in aroha, limiting ornaments on dha, and focusing more on madhya/taar saptak (although the gmRS Kanada signature may reappear in avroh), while some may assign a higher sruti to the komal ni. The raga appears in several 17th-century ragmala […]

 

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• Raag Bhupali Todi •

S-r-g-P-d-S A captivating audav raga said to symbolise spiritual purity, which essentially runs along the lines of ‘what if all Bhupali‘s chal swaras were set as komal rather than shuddha?’ (SRGPDS > SrgPdS). Most renditions are poorvang-dominant, drawing from the Todi-ang as well as reshaping phrases from Bhupali, Bilaskhani Todi, and other allied forms (given the […]

 

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• Raag Bhatiyar •

S-r-G-mM-P-D-N-S A dawn raga fabled as a creation of Raja Bhartruhari, a mythical King of Ujjain who is said to have abdicated from his life of material wealth and romantic pleasure to pursue a path of ascetic devotion. Somewhat resembling a ‘vakra Marwa with Pa’, Bhatiyar omits or limits re and Ni in aroha – with, […]

 

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• Raag Zila Kafi •

S-R-gG-m-P-D-nN-S A springtime raga described by Satyaki Dutta as “a flow of a thousand feelings…the advent of new beginnings, painted with gleaming colours and shimmering joy”. Its Zila component places greater emphasis on the double-Ga, while the rest of the raga tends to fit into the thumri-allied Mishra Kafi framework. Almost all recordings are on either […]

 

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• Raag Zeelaf •

S-G-m-P-d-S A rare audav raga fabled to have been created by 13th-century qawwali pioneer Amir Khusrau, somewhat resembling ‘Charukeshi minus Re & ni’. As per Rajan Parrikar, “this haunting pentatonic melody is composed of the following swaras: SGmPd: Jitendra Abhisheki gives a superb account with his own composition. Notice the strong ma…[and] the subtle Gm/S meend”. […]

 

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• Raag Shuddha Kalyan •

S-R-G-M-P-D-N-S A popular early night raga, Shuddha Kalyan ascends with the same 5 swaras as Bhupali (SRGPDS), and descends with the full 7 of Yaman (SNDPMGRS), leading some to title it ‘Bhoop-Kalyan’. Phrases tend to end on the poorvang-slanted Sa, Re, Ga, or Pa – and both the ‘avroh-only’ swaras (Ni & Ma) must be treated subtly […]

 

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• Raag Tilang •

S-G-m-P-nN-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Shahid Parvez (2020)— [gat, e.g. 6:58] GmP, NS, NSnP, P/n\P, GmG… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | […]

 

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• Raag Sorath •

S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Gurmeet Singh Shant (2021)— [refrain, e.g. 1:06] Gm\SRGPN, NNS(RS) n\D(P)P; Gm\SRGPN, NNS(RS) n\D(P)P; Gm\SRGPN… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 […]

 

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• Raag Sindhura •

S-R-g-m-P-D-nN-S A Kafi ally with corresponding light-classical popularity, marked out by the explicit use of double-Ni and the frequent omission of ga in aroha. Described by Tanarang as “a light flittering melody…best suited for thumri, tappa, and hori” (evident in an intriguing violin take by Allauddin Khan: later reworked by Ravi Shankar, and also by […]

 

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• Raag Shuddha Malhar •

S-R-m-P-D-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Lalith J. Rao (1994)— [refrain, e.g. 0:36] m\RR PP S\DD (D)SRS, SDP, m\RR PP S\DD (D)SRS… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 […]

 

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• Raag Shuddha Basant •

S-r-G-M-P-d-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Kushal Das (2014)— [refrain, e.g. 0:10] D(SNR)S N(D), (NS)S (Gm)m D(SNR) (N)S N(D), M, m… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | […]

 

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• Raag Ramdasi Malhar •

S-R-gG-m-P-D-nN-S A diverse sankirna raga, fabled as a creation of Guru Ram Das – a 16th-century Sikh saint said to have opened Emperor Akbar’s eyes to the unity of the divine (“these jagirs [feudal land grants] are sources of evil passions, pride, and ego…it is by the name of God that all creatures, continents, worlds, […]

 

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• Raag Pancham Malkauns •

S-g-m-P-d-n-S A loose collection of melodic strands which fall under the general banner of ‘Malkauns with Pa in avroh’ (thus offering significant overlap with Kaunsi Kanada and Sampurna Malkauns). Ascents typically stay true to the pentatonic structure of Malkauns, and the Pa is usually rendered in vakra avroh lines (e.g. ndmgmdP or gmdndmP). Beloved by […]

 

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• Raag Pancham •

S-r-G-mM-P-D-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Pournima Dhumale (2020)— [refrain, e.g. 21:22] N(R)N (DP)DP, S (SN)S, SS(SNSRSRSN)N, PSN(RPNPRDR)D, (DP)D P, P\Gm, S… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 […]

 

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• Raag (Shuddha) Nat •

S-R-G-m-P-D-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Ulhas Kashalkar (2015)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav […]

 

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• Raag Narayani •

S-R-m-P-D-n-S Adapted from the Carnatic ragam of the same name, Narayani takes the swaras of a ‘komal ni Durga’ (or ‘Khamaj no Ga’). Pa is a nyas, while Dha is rendered deergha (e.g. mPnD, DP), with a general melodic focus on madhya and taar saptaks. Tanarang describes the raga as “soothing”, while Parrikar traces its […]

 

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• Raag Maligoura •

S-r-G-M-P-dD-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Ali Akbar Khan (1989)— [theme, e.g. 10:58] P P N(D), D(P), P(M), (G)r G, GMPP, P P, N(D), D(P), P(M), (G)r G, SrS P, P… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more […]

 

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• Raag Madhuradhwani •

S-G-m-D-nN-S As per Parrikar, “Durga Khamaj-thaat…is also known [as] ‘Madhuradhwani’…This is not a popular raga, its base eroded by the popularity of Rageshri…[but] is part of the Dagar family repertoire”. While some renditions may skip Ni in ascent, traditional Dhrupad presentation will render it shuddha in aroha and komal in avroh – along with a strong […]

 

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• Raag Khokar •

S-G-m-P-D-nN-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Mallikarjun Mansur (~1980s)— [alap, e.g. 0:08] N, N/S, N(SN) N, (P)N S; SG, mPmP(GP)G\S, (PS)N S, S(NS)G m P, GmPD n(DnDn)P D(Pmm), GmP, GmPD(PD)P D(SnSDnD) n(DnDn)PP; (SGmG)P (S)mP G… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana […]

 

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• Raag Khamaj •

S-R-G-m-P-D-n-S Among the most popular light-classical ragas, Khamaj’s core form matches the ultra-versatile Mixolydian Mode of Western music. Despite being chosen by Bhatkhande as the titular raga of Khamaj thaat, renditions will usually draw on melodic combinations from outside these main seven swaras. Jairazbhoy discusses the evolution of these ‘mishra‘ features as a natural outgrowth […]

 

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• Raag Kamod •

S-R-G-mM-P-D-N-S An intricate raga which draws together elements from many others (Tanarang: “this dynamic melody is rather complex…one can see clear shadows of Malhar [SmRP], Hameer [GmDP], and Kalyan [SRS, SDP], together with glimpses of Kedar [MPDP] and Chayanat [PDPS, SRS]”). Distinguishing sequences include RRP, GmPGmRS, the taar Sa is accentuated with long P/S slides, […]

 

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• Raag Jaitashree •

S-r-G-M-P-d-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Ulhas Kashalkar (2015)— [bandish, e.g. 1:13] SG (M)G/P, P(MPM)d PMG r, SrN\d P; S(M)G (P)G/P, P(MP), P(MPM)d dM MG Gr, S(NSMGMG)P P(MdPMG) M(GM), GrS G… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more […]

 

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• Raag Jaijaiwanti •

S-R-gG-m-P-D-nN-S A much-beloved but highly intricate raga, featuring both variants of Ga and Ni. Dhrupadyas hold NSDNR as the essential pakad (with some bemoaning the loss of the “slow glide from Ga to Re…as the distinguishing feature of Jaijaiwanti”) – while modern performers tend to ‘enclose’ the komal ga in the avroh phrase RgR, preferring […]

 

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• Raag Hameer •

S-R-G-mM-P-D-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Budhaditya Mukherjee (2017)— [gat, e.g. 0:42] (P)MPD, (P)MPG, RRGm N\D, (N)D, P, (P)MP P(SNS), N(SNS)D P(MP), P(G)R R(GmDPMP), (P)G/mR S, (P)MPD, (P)MPG, RRGm N\D… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also […]

 

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• Raag Gunkali •

S-r-m-P-d-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Kedar Bodas (2015)— [bandish, e.g. 7:43] d P m, (P)m\r, rS(rS) PP, (S)dd P(d)P m(P)m\r(m)r S, Pm r(m)r S(r)S d(S)dS, rrS S(PmP)m m\rr rS S\dd rS (S)PmmP, dPdmPdd, Pdd, Pdd P m… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, […]

 

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• Raag Gunakri •

S-r-m-P-d-S Taking the swaras of ‘Bhairav no Ga/Ni’, Gunakri – described by AUTRIM as “serious and peaceful” – brings out the character of its parent raga via an oscillating komal re, and movements patterns including Sd, dP and SdSr, rS (although Jairazbhoy prefers to analyse it via the geometries of Basant Mukhari). Bose gives a […]

 

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• Raag Gauri •

S-r-G-m-P-d-N-S Described by Deepak Raja as “difficult to render in its purity”, Gauri is associated with viraha shringara (‘the piety arising from the separation of lovers’). The raga had at least two distinct forms as far back as the 16th century, and continues to manifest in several variations – spanning a main Bhairav-ang ‘shuddha ma‘ […]

 

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• Raag Gaud Malhar •

S-R-G-m-P-D-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Kishori Amonkar (2003)— [refrain, e.g. 0:47] mP P(DPDPmPDSNS), (SDP)mR m, (m)RS, R(N)S… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 […]

 

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• Raag Gandhari Todi •

S-rR-g-m-P-d-n-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —V.R. Athavale (1988)— [Swaras] • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+ Sapta: Audav […]

 

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• Raag Gandhari •

S-rR-g-m-P-d-n-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Shashwati Mandal (2017)— [refrain, e.g. 4:09] P(d)P/S SS\d PP(d) m(G)m P mP; P(d)P/S SS\d PP(d) m(G)m P(d) mP; P(d)P/S SS\d PP(d) m(G)m P(mRmR) mP(mP)dP… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also […]

 

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• Raag Dhani •

S-g-m-P-n-S Despite its ‘Minor Pentatonic’ scale form enjoying global popularity as the predominant mode of blues, rock, pop, and countless other guitar-driven genres, Dhani is comparatively rare as a raga in its own right – with its swara set mostly being heard as the ‘aroha of Bhimpalasi’ rather than in isolation (…it may be the […]

 

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• Raag Dhanashree •

S-R-g-m-P-D-n-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Shubha Mudgal (1990s)— [refrain, e.g. 2:44] SS(n) n(D)D, D(n)m, (Pmn)P (m)g, (mgm)R RRn S(mgPmnPSnS); SS(n) n(D)D, D(nDn)m, m(PmPn)P, S(nSnDn), n(DnP)P… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag […]

 

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• Raag Dev Gandhar •

S-R-gG-m-P-d-n-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Vidyadhar Vyas (1982)— [bandish themes, e.g. 0:41] PDS, R S(RGm) GmG; G(R)mGRS, S(DS)S R(SR)P(m) G(R)S; P(SR)mg RS, R S(DS)D; PDS, R S(RGm) GmG… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see […]

 

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• Raag Deepak •

(S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S) Strictly speaking, Deepak is a ‘lost raga’, known to us through its status as Tansen’s fabled fire-bringing melody – said to have set off uncontrollable blazes when he sung it with full force at Emperor Akbar’s royal palace (…and requiring Megh to extinguish it). But, while its original swaras have been lost to the […]

 

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• Raag Champak •

S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S A seldom-heard neighbour of Khambavati, distinguished (often very subtly) by stronger use of shuddha ma, and sometimes involving a Gm\S catchphrase. Both ni swaras are used, with the komal introduced via vakra avroh motions (e.g. SRn). Named after a huge evergreen tree species with fragrant yellow-orange flowers, used in perfumery and featured in many […]

 

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• Raag Bilawal •

S-R-G-m-P-D-N-S Approximates the Western Major Scale, thus taking an ‘all-shuddha’ sampurna swara set – and selected by the great V.N. Bhatkhande as the titular raga of Bilawal thaat – although its popularity has declined in the century since (partly in favour of prakritis such as Tilak Kamod and Gaud Malhar). Dha and Ga assume vital […]

 

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• Raag Bihagara •

S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Ashwini Bhide-Deshpande (2016)— [refrain, e.g. 2:17] SGm P/N N(RSNS) N DP, P(mP)G; SGm P/N N(RSNS) N DP, P(mP) G(mP)G; SGm P/N N(RSNS) N DP… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also […]

 

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• Raag Bibhas •

S-r-G-P-d-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Shruti Sadolikar (1992)— [refrain, e.g. 1:07] S (S)G (G)P (P)D, D D\P G\r S; S/r\S, S\D/S(r)S… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List): Swaras: -4 | 5 […]

 

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• Raag Bhinna Shadja •

S-G-m-D-N-S [summary] • Raga Megalist (365+) • Search | Glossary | Tags • Hindustani Raga Index • —Kishori Amonkar (1989)— [themes, e.g. 0:39] m, mG, N/G m/D(ND)G, G(R)Gm, (SG)m, G(m), G(RS), N/G G/m m/D(NSN), NN DG(m), m, mG… • Classifiers • Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full […]

 

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• Raag Basant •

S-r-G-M-P-d-N-S Basant (meaning ‘Springtime’) is a historic and highly influential form, with a lineage stretching back to at least the 8th century. The raga’s modern incarnation matches the swaras of Poorvi thaat, with shades of shuddha ma also permitted in some interpretations (e.g. SmmG; mdrS). Phraseological allies include Puriya (GMdNM; mdGmG) and Shree (e.g. NrS; […]

 

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• Raag Barwa •

S-R-g-m-P-D-nN-S An Agra gharana speciality, Barwa blends ideas from Kafi (mP, mgR; mPDNS), Sindhura (SRmP; Pg), and Desi (RPRg). The komal ga tends to be omitted in aroha, and ma is rendered deergha, while Re–Pa is often given as the vadi-samvadi. Traditionally associated with the late morning hours, the raga is one of many Kafi-allied […]

 

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• Raag Bahar •

S-R-g-m-P-D-nN-S As per Tanarang, Bahar (meaning ‘spring’) “brings out nature’s beautiful blessings…full of shringar and bhakti ras…khatkas and intricate taans are conducive to its dynamic, fleeting nature”. While rooted in the Kanada raganga, the raga features a Malharic twin-Ni, with the shuddha being more prominent. Bageshri hallmarks are also evident in the weak aroha Re, […]

 

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• Raag Alhaiya Bilawal •

S-R-G-m-P-D-nN-S While essentially summarisable as ‘Bilawal plus komal ni’, Alhaiya also presents other quirks. Most distinctively, Dha is treated as the vadi, but not as a nyas (Pa and Ga are used as stopping tones instead, often being reached via meend). Dha is also used to support komal ni via ‘up-and-down’ phrases such as SNDP, […]

 

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• Raag Adarangi Todi •

S-r-g-mM-P-d-nN-S A double-ma, double-ni Todi variant linked to 18th-century composer Naimat Khan ‘Sadarang’ and his nephew Feroze Khan ‘Adarang’, who served at the court of Mughal Emperor (and prolific arts patron) Muhammad Shah. While the raga’s historical lineage remains half-sketched, Ali Akbar Khan took to performing it later in his career. Sometimes given the alternate […]

 

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• Raag Ahiri •

S-r-g-m-P-D-n-S Somewhat resembling a ‘Bageshri komal re’, ‘Ahir Bhairav komal ga’, or ‘Bhairavi shuddha Dha’, Ahiri favours long, kaleidoscopic melodies, laden with shapes from proximate ragas. Artists may seek to accentuate the ‘equilateral triangle’ of nyas (r–m–D: an augmented triad), also drawing from its murchana-set neighbours Patdeep, Charukeshi, and Vachaspati. Matches the Carnatic Natakapriya, although origins remain […]

 

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• Raag Patmanjari •

(S-rR-gG-mM-P-dD-nN-S) Said by some to be more of a ‘performance concept’ than a single raga, ‘Patmanjari’ translates as ‘Bouquet of Five Ragas’. Debate persists over whether the form should be interpreted as an open challenge to blend five ragas of an artist’s own choosing, or whether it entails five specific ragas – and, if so, […]