• Raag Sindhura •


A Kafi ally with corresponding light-classical popularity, marked out by the explicit use of double-Ni and the frequent omission of ga in aroha. Described by Tanarang as “a light flittering melody…best suited for thumri, tappa, and hori– while Parrikar notes that “the approach to Sa takes two pathways: one drops Ni as in mPDS, the other adopts the shuddha Ni-laden strip mPN, NS. The ga becomes deergha on occasion…[and] a judicious elongation of Dha can be put to good effect” (which, along with a mgRS resolution, can suggest shades of Bageshri). The raga’s roots (presumably linked to Pakistan’s Sindh province) are ancient, with the ancestral ‘Saindhavi’ finding mention in Sarngadeva’s 13th-century Sangita Ratnakara (‘Ocean of Music and Dance’) as a ‘desi’ form. Also hear an astonishing 1930s violin rendition by Allauddin Khan (later reworked by Ravi Shankar, and also by Mehdi Hasan in a celebrated ghazal) – as well as the numerous prakritis listed below.

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Aroha: SRmPDS
Avroh: RNSnDP, mgRS

Chalan: e.g. SRmG; RnDS; RmPDmP; D(S)nDP; DmPDS; mPNSRg; (S)RS; RnDP; mPDSnDP; mPDmg; Rm(m)gRS (Bor/Dasgupta)


—Ravi Shankar (1991)—

[refrain, e.g. 8:35] R(mgm)R, SS, m\R(mR), mm, PDP(D)S, S, n/R(S) S(nSD), DD DPm, mPD m\g(m) R(mgm)RS, mR(mR), mm, PP DP(D)S


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: Miyan ki Malhar, Ahiri Todi, Bageshri Bahar, Bahar, Barwa, Hussaini Todi, Lanka Dahan Sarang, Sughrai


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SRgmPDnNS
Reverse: SrRgmPDnS
Negative: 5-3-2-2
Imperfect: 2 (Dha, Ni)
Detached: 1 (Ni)
Symmetries: none
Murchanas: Miyan ki Malhar set

Quirks: maximal‘ (swaras are optimally ‘spread out’)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: ~Salagabhairavi
Jazz: Dorian double 7th
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o • o o • o • o • o o o o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Sindhura, Saindhavi, Singhora, Sindora


—Sayeduddin Dagar (2016)—



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An open-ended project seeking to bring North Indian raga closer to all who approach with open ears. Combines direct input from dozens of leading Hindustani artists with in-depth insights from music history, global theory, performance practice, cognitive science, and much more! [out 2023-24]

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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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