• Raag Chandramadhu •


An angular pentatonic form conjured up by vocalist Amir Khan only a short time before his untimely death in a 1974 car accident – indeed, it is unclear if he ever formally named his new creation (I’ve seen it referred to as ‘Bhushwati’ and ‘Amarpriya’, and at least two posthumous releases just list it as ‘Untitled Raga’). A detailed RMIC thread discusses several plausible origin theories, generally linking the raga’s genesis to an intricate murchana process involving Chandrakauns and Madhukauns: it is prakriti with the latter, and Khan may well have made no practical distinction between the pair – however, given the general sparsity of information, it is unclear which recordings count as ‘true’ renditions. Bewitching in its oddities (‘Dhani tivra Ma‘ / ‘Minor Pentatonic #4‘) – also compare to his nearby Amirkhani Kauns (the same scale with shuddha Ga), as well as Amiri Todi (composed in his honour by Amjad Ali Khan).

Raga Megalist (365+) •
Search | Glossary | Tags
Hindustani Raga Index •


—Amir Khan (~1970s)—

[khayal, e.g. 1:01] PS(nSP)nP (n)S, g(gSnS)gMP, PgMPn P, PMP(nPSnSnPMP…), (P)n SgS…


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: Madhukauns


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SgMPnS
Reverse: SRmMDS
Negative: 2-1-2-1-3-1-2 (e.g. Nat Bhairav)
Imperfect: 3 (Ma, Pa, ni)
Detached: 1 (Ma)
Symmetries: none
Murchanas: Chandrakauns (on Pa)

Quirks: ‘tivra Ma, komal ni‘ (rarest pairing)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: ~Samudrapriya
Jazz: Minor Pentatonic (#4)
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o • • o • • o o • • o • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Chandramadhu, Bhushwati, Amarpriya, (Madhukauns?)


—Sultan Khan (1988)—



Get started with learning raga! •

Share these ragas! My site is 100% reliant on organic visitors (and none of your donations go to ad agencies…) – share this with fellow sonic searchers!


Like everything on my site, the Raga Index will always remain open-access & ad-free: however, anti-corporate musicology doesn’t pay the bills! I put as much into these resources as time and finances allow – so, to hasten the project’s expansion, you can:

Support the Raga Index! •

—Riyaz-focused notations & bandish—
—Resurrecting rare and ancient ragas—
—Further melodic & geometric analysis—
—Engaging with Hindustani performers—
—Ensuring that high-quality raga knowledge will remain open to all, at no cost: free from commercial motive!—


Hindustani Raga Index

An open-ended project seeking to bring North Indian raga closer to all who approach with open ears. Combines direct input from dozens of leading Hindustani artists with in-depth insights from music history, global theory, performance practice, cognitive science, and much more! [out 2023-24]

Megalist (365+ ragas)
Search: Find your new favourite •
Tags: Classifying the ragascape •
Glossary: Raga jargon demystified
Murchanas: Swara-set rotations •
Thaat: Bhatkhande’s base scales •
Ragatable: Analytical connections •
Tanpuras: Divine overtonal drones •
Quotes: Musings from raga artists •
Talas: Hindustani rhythm cycles •
Sa | Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni
[Random Raga]

—Search the Raga Index—

Feedback / Contact •

George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

Projects & articles: full list •

everything 100% ad-free and open-access