• Raag Lilavati •


Confusion persists around which melodic forms are associated with the name ‘Lilavati’, with several incongruous examples in sporadic modern circulation. Abhirang uses the tones of a ‘komal ga Kalavati’ (SgPDnS), taking his composition from a 1969 edition of Sangeet magazine and linking his interpretation to the congruent Carnatic ‘Karani’ – while a scratchy Zia Fariduddin Dagar session uses the more extensive SrGmMPdDNS. And Dilshad Khan’s apparent ‘Leelavati’ recording, which showcases the Patiala master’s extraordinary command of mandra saptak, has swaras SrGmPnS: although I’m near-certain that this is a digital mistitling, as the official YouTube upload for doesn’t quite match the track length listed on the back of the physical CD (…the CD’s ‘Leelavati’ length corresponds to a supposed ‘Mishra Bha[iravi]’ on YouTube, which actually has swaras SRgPdS: chiming with other sources which describe Lilavati as “similar to Shivranjani in one range and Bhupali Todi in another”). ‘Lilavati’ is also the title of a famous 12th-century mathematical treatise by Bhaskara II, who named it after his daughter (“Fawn-eyed child Lilavati, how much 135 multiplied by 12? And tell me, oh beautiful one, how much is that product divided by the same multiplier?”).

Raga Megalist (365+) •
Search | Glossary | Tags
Hindustani Raga Index •


—Abhijith Shenoy ‘Abhirang’ (2020)—

[refrain, e.g. 4:12] DP P(gP)g, (S)n SgS, S, nSgS…


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 67 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | ShadavSampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: (none found)


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SgPDnS
Reverse: SRgmDS
Negative: 2-1-2-1-1-2-3
Imperfect: 3 (Pa, Dha, ni)
Detached: 1 (Dha)
Symmetries: none
Murchanas: Rasaranjani (on ni)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: ~Karani
Jazz: Dorian (no 2nd/4th)
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o • • o • • • o • o o • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Lilavati, Leelavati, Lilavatee, ~Ranjani


—Dilshad Khan & Parveen Sultana (1995)—
(as noted above: the YouTube uploads for this album appear to have shuffled titles…although I’m confident that this one is the ‘real Lilavati’)



Get started with learning raga! •

Share these ragas! My site is 100% reliant on organic visitors (and none of your donations go to ad agencies…) – share this with fellow sonic searchers!


Like everything on my site, the Raga Index will always remain open-access & ad-free: however, anti-corporate musicology doesn’t pay the bills! I put as much into these resources as time and finances allow – so, to hasten the project’s expansion, you can:

Support the Raga Index! •

—Riyaz-focused notations & bandish—
—Resurrecting rare and ancient ragas—
—Further melodic & geometric analysis—
—Engaging with Hindustani performers—
—Ensuring that high-quality raga knowledge will remain open to all, at no cost: free from commercial motive!—


Hindustani Raga Index

An open-ended project seeking to bring North Indian raga closer to all who approach with open ears. Combines direct input from dozens of leading Hindustani artists with in-depth insights from music history, global theory, performance practice, cognitive science, and much more! [out 2023-24]

Megalist (365+ ragas)
Search: Find your new favourite •
Tags: Classifying the ragascape •
Glossary: Raga jargon demystified
Murchanas: Swara-set rotations •
Thaat: Bhatkhande’s base scales •
Ragatable: Analytical connections •
Tanpuras: Divine overtonal drones •
Quotes: Musings from raga artists •
Talas: Hindustani rhythm cycles •
Sa | Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni
[Random Raga]

—Search the Raga Index—

Feedback / Contact •

George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

Projects & articles: full list •

everything 100% ad-free and open-access