• Raag Gandhari •


Described by Parrikar as “an Asavariant of ancient vintage, [with] no consensus regarding its contemporary swarupa”, the modern Gandhari usually appears in double-Re form – although some variants also employ double-Ga and/or double-Dha. Many renditions follow a ‘Jaunpuri-plus’ framework, seasoning this raga with komal re in concluding phrases (e.g. nPndPmg, grgrS). Sometimes known as ‘Gandhari Todi’, indicative of the Todi-ang available in descending phrases (also see the prakriti Bahaduri Todi, as well as the related Dev Gandhar and Devgandhari Todi).

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—Shashwati Mandal (2017)—

[refrain, e.g. 4:09] P(d)P/S SS\d PP(d) m(G)m P mP; P(d)P/S SS\d PP(d) m(G)m P(d) mP; P(d)P/S SS\d PP(d) m(G)m P(mRmR) mP(mP)dP…


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: Bahaduri Todi


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SrRgmPdnS
Reverse: SRGmPDnNS (=Desh)
Negative: 5-2-3-2
Imperfect: 1 (Re)
Detached: none
Symmetries: mirror (rR—Pd)
Murchanas: Bihag set

Quirks: maximal‘ (swaras are optimally ‘spread out’)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: ~Ghanta
Jazz: Phrygiolian
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o o o o • o • o o • o • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Gandhari, Gandari, Gandhari Todi


—Bundu Khan (~1950s)—



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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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