• Raag Dev Gandhar •


A Gwalior gharana speciality described by Tanarang as “an old melodic form, not much in vogue…very sweet, its unique appeal stems from the application of both gandhars, elaborated similar to Jaunpuri”. Unlike Gandhari, Dev Gandhar allows for both Ga variants in aroha as well as avroh – with Parrikar providing a simple summary for aspiring performers: “take Shuddha Re Asavari, add shuddha Ga as in RnSRG, m. Shake well, but don’t stir” – also recounting that K.L. Saigal’s 1932 recording (Jhulanaa Jhulavo-Ree) “went on to become a national chant. He was initially paid 25 rupees for the song, and when the record company later offered him much more in response to the massive sales, he refused the largesse…”. Some renditions may feature other tones from outside the base scale (e.g. Vidyadhar Vyas’ interpretation deviates sharply, with a shuddha-tinged uttarang and touches of tivra Ma).

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Aroha: SRGmP, mgR, GmPdnS
Avroh: SndP, mPgRG, mgRS

Chalan: e.g. RmPndP; dmP(m)g; (S)RSRn; SRG; mP(m)g; (S)RS (Parrikar)


—Vidyadhar Vyas (1982)—

[bandish themes, e.g. 0:41] PDS, R S(RGm) GmG; G(R)mGRS, S(DS)S R(SR)P(m) G(R)S; P(SR)mg RS, R S(DS)D; PDS, R S(RGm) GmG…


• Ragmalas •

Historic miniature paintings (learn more)

“The famed Bundi School: the first evidence of Bundi painting belongs to the reign of the Rajput ruler Chattar Sal, and the school reached its apex under the rule of the Hara family…” (Bundi, c.1750) / “Ragini Devagandhara, from the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya” (Hyderabad, c.1750)


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: Gunji Kanada


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SRgGmPdnS
Reverse: SRGmPdDnS
Negative: 2-5-3-2
Imperfect: 2 (Re, Ga)
Detached: 1 (Ga)
Symmetries: none
Murchanas: Miyan ki Malhar set


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: (~Basant Bahaar)
Jazz: Aeolian (dbl. 3rd)
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o • o o o o • o o • o • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Dev Gandhar, Devgandhar, Dvigandhar


—Yunus Hussain Khan/Sachin Dev Burman/Kundan Lal Saigal)—



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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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