• Raag Khat •


Often described as one of the most complex Hindustani forms, Khat (Sanskrit: ‘six’) is said to combine six different ragas – although it remains unclear precisely which they may be (Subbha Rao’s Raga Nidhi cites either “Suha, Kanada, Sarang, Desi, Gandhari, & Sughrai” or “Ramkali, Asavari, Todi, Gujiri, Baradi, & Gandhari“). Often, Asavari is taken as a foundation (e.g. through a strong komal dha), with other flavours drawn from Bhairavi, Khamaj, and beyond (the renditions I’ve listened to collectively span all swara positions except tivra Ma). AUTRIM notes that “generally the komal Re is used only [as] grS. Shuddha Ga and komal Ga are used in the ascending and descending phrases respectively. However, the usage of Dha depends upon the particular phrase: for example, both Dhas could be used in the [aroha] like dnP and DnP”. Somewhat uncommon on the concert circuit – and seemingly the near-exclusive preserve of vocalists.

Raga Megalist (365+) •
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Hindustani Raga Index •


—Manjiri Asanare-Kelkar (2016)—

[bandish themes, e.g. 4:48] m(R)mR P, m P P(mP)mR gS R(m)n; R(mR)mP, mP (R)d, (Pn)d, (n)d, (d)n, n\P P, Pnm, mnP, PS, PS(nS), S nSR S, Sn, n\d…


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1 | Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: S-rR-gG-m-P-dD-n-S
Reverse: SRgGmPdDnNS (=none)
Inverse: Ni; SPS (=none)
Imperfect: 1 (Ga)
Detached: none
Symmetries: mirror (Rg—dD)
Murchanas: Pilu (on ma)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: (~Kamavardhini)
Jazz: Mixolydian+Lydian
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o o o o o o • o o o o • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: Khat, Kat


—Mallikarjun Mansur (1978)—




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Hindustani Raga Index

An open-ended project seeking to bring North Indian raga closer to all who approach with open ears. Combines direct input from dozens of leading Hindustani artists with in-depth insights from music history, global theory, performance practice, cognitive science, and much more! [out 2023]

Megalist (365+ ragas)
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Tags: Classifying the ragascape •
Glossary: Raga jargon demystified
Ragatable: Analytical connections •
Thaat: Bhatkhande’s base scales •
Murchanas: Swara-set rotations •
Quotes: Musings from raga artists •
Tanpuras: Divine overtonal drones •
Talas: Hindustani rhythm cycles •
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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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