• Raag Jungala •


A rare folk-derived form associated with Hafiz Ali Khan’s Senia-Bangash sarod lineage, often titled ‘Pilu Jungala’ – although Khan’s original renditions seem to lie closer to Darbari and Adana, including a SdnSRg(m) launch phrase and vakra (m)gmRS concluding motions. Further information is scant, although his son Amjad has expanded on the same concept in recent years, adding a greater Pilu influence via introducing shuddha Ni (DnSRgR, (S)NS) and shades of shuddha Ga (GmPmg). Ali Akbar Khan was also known to play a markedly mishra raga titled ‘Pilu Jangula’ (…in fact, all renditions I can trace are by sarodiyas named ‘Khan’) – although his recording has relatively limited phraseological overlap with the Senia-Bangash form, punctuated by a highly unusual chikari tuning of SaNi (n.b. an additional ‘Jungla Bhairavi’ is occasionally performed in some sarangi traditions). To hear Jungala in further context, refer to a rundown of Mishra Pilu renditions by sarodiya Rahul Bhattacharya: “Amjad Ali Khan in the early 1990s [plays] a fabulously crafted Pilu Jungala, which morphs into Vilayat Khan’s famed Gara composition, then onto Enayet Khan’s wondrous Bihari gat, then a few heritage compositions in pure Pilu which can be traced back to Mohammad Amir Khan. The opening Pilu Jungala is a pedigree composition of Hafiz Ali Khan…”.

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—Hafiz Ali Khan (~1960s)—

[gat, e.g. 0:01] dnSR(R)g, gmPP(P) (m)gmRS nR(R)SS, (SR)mR gR SS, dnSR (g)R(g)R SS, dnSR(R)g


• Classifiers •

Explore hidden inter-raga connections: swara geometries, melodic features, murchana sets, ragangas, & more (also see the Full Tag List):

Swaras: -4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10+

Sapta: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Poorvang: SRGM | SRG | SRM | SGM

Uttarang: PDNS | PDS | PNS | DNS

Varjit: Re | Ga | Ma | Pa | Dha | Ni

Double: rR | gG | mM | dD | nN

Thaat: 10 | 32Enclosed | Inexact

Chal: All-shuddha | All-komal | Ma-tivra

Gaps: Anh. | Hemi. | 3-row | 4-row | 5-row

Symmetries: Mirror | Rotation | Palindr.

Aroha: Audav | ShadavSampurna

Avroh: Audav | Shadav | Sampurna

Jati: Equal | Balanced | Av.+1Av.+2

Samay: Morning | Aftern. | Eve. | Night

Murchana: Bhup. | Bihag | Bilaw. | Charu.

Raganga: Bhairav | Malhar | Kan. | Todi

Construction: Jod | Mishra | Oddball

Origin: Ancient | Carnatic | Modern

Dominance: Poorvang | Uttarang

Prevalence: A-list | Prachalit | Aprach.


• Prakriti: Asavari thaat, Asavari (shuddha Re), Darbari, Kaunsi Kanada, Jaunpuri, Adana, Sampurna Malkauns


–Swara Geometries–

Core form: SRgmPdnS
Reverse: SRGmPDnS (=Khamaj)
Negative: 2-3-2-3-2 (e.g. Megh)
Imperfect: 1 (Re)
Detached: none
Symmetries: mirror (m—N)
Murchanas: Bilawal set

Quirks: maximal‘ (swaras are optimally ‘spread out’)


–Global Translations–

Carnatic: (~Jonpuri)
Jazz: Natural Minor / Aeolian
Pitch classes (‘fret-jumps’):

o • o o • o • o o • o • o


• Tanpura: Sa–Pa
• Names: (Pilu) Jungala, Jangola, Jangla, Jingla, Jungol


—Ali Akbar Khan (~1970s)—




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George Howlett is a London-based musician, writer, and teacher (guitars, sitar, tabla, & santoor). Above all I seek to enthuse fellow sonic searchers, interconnecting fresh vibrations with the voices, cultures, and passions behind them. See Homepage for more, and hit me up for Lessons!

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